Isoprenoid compounds are a diverse group of natural products which are essential components in all cells. Isoprenoids are biosynthesized from the simple precursors isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP). Eukaryotes, fungi, and some gram-positive bacteria produce IPP through the mevalonate (MVA) pathway whereas gram-negative and some gram-positive bacteria utilize the non-mevalonate or 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol-4-phosphate (MEP) pathway. 1-Hydroxy-2-methyl-2-buten-4-yl 4-diphosphate (HDMAPP or HMBPP) is an intermediate in the non-mevalonate pathway and is biosynthesized from 2-C-Methyl-D-erythritol 2,4-cyclophosphate (cMEPP) by IspG (GcpE). It is the substrate for IspH (LytB) yielding IPP and DMAPP. In addition, HDMAPP is the most potent VγVδ T-cell activator identified.
Provided as the tris-ammonium salt
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Featured in Publications
1) deBarros, A., M. Chaves-Ferreira, et al. (2011). “CD70–CD27 interactions provide survival and proliferative signals that regulate T cell receptor-driven activation of human γδ peripheral blood lymphocytes.” European Journal of Immunology 41(1): 195.
2) Spencer, C. T., G. Abate, et al. (2008). “Only a Subset of Phosphoantigen-Responsive γ9δ2 T Cells Mediate Protective Tuberculosis Immunity.” The Journal of Immunology 181(7): 4471-4484.
3) Moens, E., M. Brouwer, et al. (2011). “IL-23R and TCR signaling drives the generation of neonatal Vγ9Vδ2 T cells expressing high levels of cytotoxic mediators and producing IFN-gamma and IL-17.” J Leukoc Biol 89(5): 743-52.
4) Hsiao, C.-H. C. and A. J. Wiemer (2018). “A power law function describes the time- and dose-dependency of Vγ9Vδ2 T cell activation by phosphoantigens.” Biochem Pharmacol 158: 298-304.
5) Rodrigues, N. V., et al. (2018). “Low-Density Lipoprotein Uptake Inhibits the Activation and Antitumor Functions of Human Vγ9Vδ2 T Cells.” Cancer immunology research 6(4): 448-457.
6) Kouakanou, L., et al. (2019). “Vitamin C promotes the proliferation and effector functions of human γδ T cells.” Cellular & Molecular Immunology. DOI:10.1038/s41423-019-0247-8
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