(2R)-1,1-difluoro-2-palmitoyloxy-3-phosphopropane (XY-4) is an analog of 2-palmitoyl lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) in which the sn-1 hydroxyl has been replaced by two fluorines. It acts as a selective agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) but does not stimulate LPA1, LPA2, or LPA3 receptors. PPARγ is a transcription factor of the nuclear receptor superfamily and has been implicated in atherogenesis.
Featured in Publications
1) Zhang, C., D. L. Baker, et al. (2004). “Lysophosphatidic Acid Induces Neointima Formation Through PPARgamma Activation.” The Journal of Experimental Medicine 199(6): 763-774.
2) McIntyre, T. M., A. V. Pontsler, et al. (2003). “Identification of an intracellular receptor for lysophosphatidic acid (LPA): LPA is a transcellular PPARgamma agonist.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 100(1): 131-136.