Phosphoinositides (PIPns) are minor components of cellular membranes but are integral signaling molecules for cellular communication. Phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3), formed from PI(4,5)P2 though phosphorylation by PI 3-kinase, activates numerous signaling pathways resulting in cell proliferation, growth, survival, glucose transport and protein synthesis. High PIP3 levels from disregulation of PI3-K have been demonstrated in cancer and inflammatory diseases. PIP3 is hydrolyzed by the phosphatases PTEN to PI(4,5)P2 and SHIP to PI(3,4)P2.
GloPIPs are labeled at the sn-1 position with BODIPY®-FL (505/513), BODIPY®-TMR (544/574), or biotin. The sn-1 linkage in these labeled PIPs has been changed to a more stable amide from an ester. Results from experiments conducted at Echelon indicated that this minor chemical change did not have a significant effect in any of the applications tested.
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